Saturday, August 15, 2015

Nephrology Mnemonics


Nephrology Mnemonics


Polycystic kidney: genetic marker "P" is the 16th
letter of the alphabet.
· Autosomal dominant Polycystic kidney disease is associated with
abberation on the 16th chromosome.


Glomerular disease with a reduced complement level 
PELICAN
:
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Endocarditis (sub-acute)
Lupus erythematosus
Idiopatic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Cryoglobulinemia
Abscess (visceral)
Nephritis


Renal tubular acidosis: type with common nephrocalcinosis
The stONE (nephrocalcinosis) is common in type ONE.


Urinary incontinence: differential DIAPERS:
Delirium
Infection
Atrophic urethritis and vaginitis
Pharmaceuticals/ Psychologic
Excessive urine output
Restricted mobility
Stool impaction


Metabolic waste products retention: clinical features 
ABCDEFGHI
:
Apathy/ Anorexia/ Anemia
Bleeding
Confusion/ Coma
Dizziness
Emesis/ Edema of the lung
Fits
Gastrointestinal bleeding
Hiccups
Infection


Hematuria: differential HEMATURIA:
Hereditary (PCK and OWR) / Henoch Schonlein purpura
Embolism (infective endocarditis)
Malignant HTN
Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis / IgA nephropathy
Tumors / Trauma / Toxic drugs
Urolithiasis
Renal papillary necrosis
Infection (pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis)
Anti-coagulants


Nephrectomy: indications 4 T's:
Trauma
Tumor
TB
Transplantation


Urinary incontinence: causes of acute and reversible DRIP:
Delirium
Restricted mobility/ Retention
Inflammation / Infection/ Impaction [fecal]
Pharmaceuticals / Polyuria
· "Drip" is convenient since it is urinary incontinence, so urine only drips
out.


Nephrotic syndrome: causes for secondary nephrotic syndrome
DAVID:
Diabetes mellitus
Amyloidosis
Vasculitis
Infections
Drugs


Pyelonephritis (acute): predisposing factors SCARRIN' UP:
Sex (females <40, males >40)
Catheterization
Age (infant, elderly)
Renal lesions
Reflux (vesciouteral)
Immunodeficienct
NIDDM, IDDM
Urinary obstuction
Pregnant
· Acute pyelonephritis heals by scarrin' up the area (pyelonephritic scar).


Epididmyitis: bacterial causes CENT:
Chlamydia trachomatis
E. coli
Nisseria gonorrhoeae
Tuberculos bacteria


Hydronephrosis: differential · Unilateral is PACT:
Pelvic-uteric obstruction (congenital or acquired)
Aberrant renal vessels
Calculi
Tumours of renal pelvis
· Bilateral is SUPER:
Stenosis of the urethra
Urethral valve
Prostatic enlargement
Extensive bladder tumour
Retro-peritoneal fibrosis


Testicular atrophy: differential TESTES SHRINK:
Trauma
Exhaustional atrophy
Sequelae
Too little food
Elderly
Semen obstruction
Sex hormone therapy
Hypopituitarism
Radiation
Inflammatory orchitis
Not descended
Kleinfelter's


Dialysis: indications AEIOU:
Acid-base problems (severe acidosis or alkalosis)
Electrolyte problems (hyperkalemia)
Intoxications
Overload, fluid
Uremic symptoms


Enlarged kidneys: causes SHAPE:
Sclerderma
HIV nephropathy
Amyloidosis
Polycystic kidney disease
Endocrinophathy (diabetes)


Prostatism: initial symptoms "Prostatism is initially FUN":
Frequency
Urgency
Nocturia


Renal Cell Cancer (RCC): genetic marker "RCC" equals 
three
. Or, "C" is the third letter of the alphabet.
· RCC is associated with genetic abberations on the third chromosome (VHL
gene)

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